Securing structures

Next to securing of devices, tools and other equipment parts of structures should be properly secured. In addtion there are some structurail equipment like grafting, toeboards that contributes to the prevention of dropped opbjects. This part is all about best practice recoommendations of several structurail equipment to prevent dropped objects.

Grating

Best practice recommendations:

  • Grating must be adequately fixed to underlying structures to prevent loosening due to vibrations or loads
  • Grating should be secured against sideways movement in all directions, by stopping against structure like nabouring grating, toe board, railing etc
  • Through-bolts or threaded connections with lock nuts are recommended for securing
  • Openings in the grating must not exceed 20 mm where personnel may traffic the area below, and should otherwise not exceed 35 mm

Piping and equipment feedthroughs

Best practice recommendations:

  • All piping and equipment feedthroughs in decks and grating must have a toe board and must be covered to the greatest extent possible
  • Canvas or a cladding material can be used
  • Covering is especially important in areas where there is equipment requiring periodic maintenance. if done properly, and preferably permanently, this is an effective measure against dropped objects

Railings

Best practice recommendations:

  • Railings must be a minimum of 1100 mm high and have integrated toe boards that are at least 100 mm high
  • Railings must be functionally designed for the area they are intended to secure, e.g. wire mesh must be installed as required (loading areas)
  • Railings shall not have deformations or cracks that affect their functionality or strength
  • It must always be possible to insert movable railings into the fastenings and insert a securing through-bolt
  • The safety bolt must be adequately locked using a securing pin, snap hook (with eyelet) or a cotter pin (see also the section on securing pins)
  • Both the safety bolt and locking mechanism must be secured in the immediate vicinity of the fastening
  • All connections between elements in the railing must be secured with a through-bolt and lock nut
  •  The use of setscrews is not recommended in permanent railings

  • Railings and attachment points for collapsible and movable railings must be inspected on a regular basis to maintain adequate security and functionality 

Toeboards

Best practice recommendations:

  • Decks, gangways and platforms must have toe boards with a minimum height of 100 mm
  • On stairways, every step must have a toe board with a minimum height of 50 mm
  • All landings in stairways must have toe boards with a minimum height of 100 mm
  • The gap between the deck or grating and toe board must not exceed 10 mm

Swing gates / Safety gate

Best practice recommendations:

  • Gates must be of the same strength as the surrounding railings
  • Gates must be secured in order to prevent disengaging
  • Gates must open/swing towards the platform or deck
  • Gates must be designed to automatically return to and remain in a closed position (self-closing gates)
  • On floating rigs/installations it is recommended that a latch is fitted to secure the gate in the closed position
  • Toe boards must be integrated with gates in accordance with requirements
  • Wherever possible, the hinges should be an integral part of the gate
  • Swing gates must be inspected and maintained on a regular basis to ensure adequate functionality

Ladders

Best practice recommendations:

  • Ladders higher than 9 m must feature an incorporated rest platform every sixth metre, or be equipped with a permanent fall arrest device
  • Ladders higher than 6 m should have a rest platform in accordance with recommendations from the norwegian Labour inspection Authority
  • Safety cages must be installed on ladders higher than 3 m, and on shorter ladders where there is a risk of falling to a lower level
  • The safety cage must start at a maximum of 2200 – 2300 mm above the deck/floor. The distance between the upper part of the railing and the lower part of the cage should be minimised by using extra protection as appropriate wherever there is a risk of falling to a lower level
  • The safety cage must extend to at least 110 cm above the top level
  • The diameter of the safety cage must be at least 70-80 cm
  • Any damage or deformation must be reported and corrected as soon as possible
  • Ladders and safety cages must be inspected on a regular basis in order to ensure adequate functionality

Wind walls

Best practice recommendations:

  • Wind wall panels must be fastened to a dedicated support structure and never to the main structure
  • Wind wall panels must always be reinforced using horizontal steel beams in accordance with the design loads
  • Areas that are exposed to collision risk must have stronger corner mountings secured by through-bolts and lock nuts
  • The preferred attachment solution is through-bolts with large washers and lock nuts
  • The user manual/instructions must also provide guidelines for the correct installation of joints and attachment points
  • Routines for necessary maintenance and the inspection of wind wall panels and their attachment points must be prepared